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Late 1800s to 1920 MAA
Late 1800s to 1920

Thorndike’s Stimulus-Respo​nse Bond Theory - late 1800s to early 1900s ​

Math education focused on drill-like practice and memorization with an emphasis on mental math and repetition.

Mackay’s Elements of Euclid (1887)

Until the early 20th century, geometry was taught using the work of the ancient Greek philosopher, Euclid, in its original form. Despite emerging theories, geometry education still relied heavily on Euclid’s ‘Elements’ from 300 B.C.​

Elements of Euclid cover

Junior High School Entrance Examination (1913)

With the focus on rote skills, the exam states that marks will only be given for correct answers rather than the steps that show the critical thinking skills needed to solve the problems.

Junior High School Exam 1913 page 1 
 Junior High School Exam 1913 page 2 
                    1913 Exam text

Mental Arithmetic (1905)

During this time period the emphasis was on memory and mental arithmetic. Students were asked to solve the equations and problems in their​ heads. Can you?

                                                                                                                                               1920 to 1960​
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